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Sep. 20--If it wasn't for an enduring image as the "Smoky City" -- so dubbed by muckraking journalist Upton Sinclair -- Pittsburgh might never have become a center for environmental innovation.

"I think there was a recognition, even in the pre-World War II period, that the city wasn't livable," said Anne Madarasz, director of the museum division at the Senator John Heinz History Center. "It wasn't attractive and, were the steel industry to decline -- and there were some indications it might, even then -- we needed to invest in the city to attract people to live here and businesses to locate here."


Original Article: Environmental Innovation Began Early in Erstwhile 'Smoky City' (Pittsburgh)